Great at Work

Quiet Revolution is excited to spread the word about Morten Hansen’s new book, Great at Work. The author wrote the following blog post for the Quiet Revolution community to share his ideas with us.

How can we have great debates in meetings where everyone contributes?

I remember well the first time I read Quiet. When I got to the page about the subarctic survival simulation used at the Harvard Business School, I was particularly intrigued. That’s because I used to be one of the professors who taught this case as part of the first-year MBA leadership course called LEAD. The simulation typically unfolded as Susan describes it. After their plane crashes in a barren, ice-capped wilderness, a surviving group of six to eight students must decide whether to stay put or attempt to hike to safety. They have to rank 15 items in importance according to their chances of survival. How will the team come to this decision?

Well, as Susan writes and as I observed, the loudest, most extroverted students usually dominated. That made little sense, as it was rare that these students had relevant expertise. I sometimes heard students take control by saying, “Well, I hiked once in Yosemite, so I have some knowledge here.” Then these students blathered on about what to bring, picking—yes—the bottle of booze “to keep warm.” And so they would die (in this exercise).

It’s a great exercise because it reveals how many teams often debate. Some people—usually the extroverted loud mouths—dominate, even when they have the wrong answer (bringing the booze) and prevent others with more sage input from being heard.

This raises two fundamental questions: how can the quieter among us speak up? And how can managers run meetings so that everyone gets a chance to contribute, so that teams can make the best decisions? In my recent study—which I have published in my new book Great at Work—we investigated how key work practices of 5,000 managers and employees led to better performance. The best performers—including many introverts—found ways to speak up in meetings and to lead team debates that included everyone’s contributions.

As I discovered in my research, it’s not only introverts who struggle to speak up in meetings. It’s also true for ambiverts, and for people who feel intimidated in certain situations. I am an ambivert and there have been many times I have felt intimidated by a certain team situation and have not had the courage to speak up. Early in my career, when I joined the Boston Consulting Group, I attended an initial training session in a room filled with other recruits from places like Harvard and Stanford. That was intimidating for sure. We had to participate in one of those “thought experiments” in real time, estimating the number of cars on the road in the United States. One guy raised his hand and shouted out a range estimate, explaining the reasoning. The partner running the session exclaimed how well this new hire had answered the question. I thought the reasoning was totally flawed and wanted to say so in front of all these people, but I lacked the courage to raise my hand, so I remained silent.

I venture that this self-censoring has happened to most people at some point. Here’s an infamous example. When President Kennedy’s administration considered whether to launch an invasion to topple Fidel Castro in Cuba, several advisors thought the plan foolish but didn’t dare speak up. Among them was special advisor Arthur Schlesinger, who recounted a crucial meeting: “an intimidating group sat around the table—the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Defense, the director of the Central Intelligence Agency, three Joint Chiefs resplendent in uniforms and decorations.” Even though he opposed the plan, he couldn’t muster the courage to say so: “I shrank into a chair in the far corner and listened in silence.” The attempted invasion remains infamous to this day as the Bay of Pigs fiasco. 

So how can we better speak up, even in meetings that are intimidating and where some extroverted loudmouths tend to dominate? 

  • I’ve learned to prep for meetings by jotting down three insightful questions. At an appropriate time, I launch into one. I’ve found that posing a question is easier than making a full-blown argument.
  • Another tip is to build on someone else’s argument: “John mentioned increasing the price. I think that’s a good idea, and perhaps we should consider a 5 percent increase.” When you build on someone’s argument, you instantly insert yourself into the dialogue. You’re no longer lingering on the periphery of the group.
  • Another tactic is to make your views known to the team leader before the meeting. Hopefully, the leader will call on you at the appropriate time. That might put you in an uncomfortable position, but now you’re prepared to say something valuable.

Of course, it’s better if the manager in charge of the meeting creates a better environment so everyone feels able to speak up and contribute. In our study, the 36 year-old Dutchman Dolf Van den Brink did just that upon taking over Heineken’s sagging U.S. operations in White Plains, New York. When I interviewed him for my new book, he recalled that when he started, there was “a lot of fear” at the headquarters, and “nobody was speaking their mind.” Van den Brink hit upon the idea of using props to establish new expectations for meetings. When his team members filed into the room one morning, they noticed several 2×3 inch cards on the table. The red card read: Challenge, Have Another Solution. Another, a green card, declared: All In—Ask me Why!  The last card was grey with a warning: Shiny Objects Alert, Get Back on Track. Every team member could grab and hold one of the cards to disagree (red), support a point of view (green), or refocus a colleague who was going off in the wrong direction (grey).

The Heineken Cards

Was this tactic silly? You bet! But on purpose. As Van den Brink explained, “What the presence of [the red card] meant was that anybody could legitimately raise a challenge.” By setting expectations and inviting people to speak, Van den Brink cultivated what Harvard professor Amy Edmondson calls an atmosphere of psychological safety. Van den Brink’s tactic worked. Over time, people on his team started to speak up. Soon the cards were no longer needed, and they disappeared from the room. Alejandra de Obeso, Chief of Staff at the time, noticed how the new expectations had enabled quiet people to participate vibrantly in the discussions. “There was one person with an introverted nature who significantly changed,” she remarked. “This person always had a very nuanced point of view of what was going on in meetings but was anxious about sharing it.” Over time, helped by a sense of inclusiveness and clear rules for allowing people to speak up, this person began to contribute, becoming “a reconciling force and taking the conversation a level further.” Van den Brink is confident that better discussions in the team played a major role in improving the innovation rate in the business and turning it around: “The more you can improve the quality of the debate, the better the quality of the outcomes.”

As my research demonstrates, we need better debates in meetings. And that means that everyone in the room needs to be able to contribute. Each one of us can take steps to speak up. And all managers can do a better job of including all viewpoints in the debate to help the team make better decisions and improve results.

This is not just about inclusiveness. It’s about improving performance.

Share your thoughts.

Let’s keep our discussions reflective, productive, and welcoming. Please follow our Community Guidelines and understand that we moderate comments and reserve the right to delete comments that don’t adhere to our guidelines. You must sign in or sign up to comment.
  • Dimitri Tsoumpas


  • Debbie Anderson

    I like this article, it has some great ideas. I work on a team where we are all over the country, so our meetings are always on the phone. We are also a pretty quiet group (although not all introverts). My manager will go around the room (virtually) and ask directly by name for each of us to speakat times during discussions. Although it puts us on the spot it does get everyone to contribute, and we are comfortable enough with each other to say Pass or I don’t know. I am not a good on the spot thinker, and frequently think of an idea or a question after the meeting is over. I also like that word, ambivert, I think that describes me. I work with some really smart people, who are way better than I will ever be at coming up with innovative technical solutions, and that is very intimidating! My manager keeps reminding me that I contribute in different ways to the team, but those contributions are equally important as the others.

  • Ed Pie

    I have to agree with everything I’ve read in this article and the comments. One strategy I’ve used with modest success to be heard where my contributions tend to get ignored is share them with the meeting lead beforehand so the development of a project isn’t preemptively skewed by participants who are more interested in what they have to say than in what the project is about. Has anyone else tried something like this?

    I was brought here by something on LinkedIn, which made me think the focus of the article was slightly different. When I saw the question “How do we get more participation in meetings,” my first thought was “are we sure all the people who sit there quietly actually need to be here?” I don’t know if my experience is typical, but at my place of employment, meeting attendance for the sake of putting in face time without regard to productivity is a practice that a few managers are just starting to reconsider, and the ramifications of that are…well, they’re obvious from the outside, at least.

  • Catherine

    What solution do you have for this situation:
    As an introvert I’ve been in meetings many times when people are throwing around solutions to a problem. I have a different idea and cautiously put it forward. People either don’t hear, or seem to just look through me. Then two minutes later someone loudly repeats my idea and everyone greets it with loud praise and acknowledgement.
    This has happened no end of times to me and other introvert friends I know. I have occasionally challenged the person who copied my idea, saying ‘Isn’t that what I just said?’ or something similar. Only to be ignored/ stared through yet again, and the meeting moves on.
    What is the answer to this problem? Its so frustrating and rude, frankly. I considered keeping my ideas to myself and writing them down to show the chairperson of the meeting afterwards.

    • Smunkey

      Catherine, did you read “How to Be Heard When You Aren’t the Loudest Voice in the Room”, also on this newsletter? It may be helpful, and some good suggestions were made in the comments section of the article, so don’t forget to read those, too.

      • Carol R

        I searched for that, but no results popped up. Don’t suppose you remember who wrote it?

        • Smunkey

          It was Meagan Francis. If you Google the article title, you should be able to find it that way, too.

      • Catherine

        Thanks I will, and do what Carol said too.

    • Sleak

      I can sympathise, Catherine. This happens to me as well. My two thoughts on this are : I’ve resorted to the same thing — speaking with leaders one on one afterwards to share my contributions. However this only works if a solution has not been agreed to an actioned in the meeting. This is not the long term answer. My other thought is that this needs to be addressed in the ways meetings themselves are run (hence the book!). Where I’ve felt included the meeting leaders have recognized different styles of working -as well as different styles of thinking – and found good ways to make everyone’s (yes, even extrovertts’) thoughts be heard. That ‘safe environment’ is key. Can you speak with management? Is there something that can be done to shift the culture of your meetings? Should you buy them the book?!

      • Catherine

        Thanks. Its really a past problem for me as I’m a stay at home mum now, but it does happen in social situations too, because social groups have discussions too. Maybe I just have to grit my teeth and talk louder, not caring if I sound stupid.

    • Carol R

      Catherine, I’d probably do the same thing you did but maybe adding some humor (which gets more attention): “Hey, Jeff, so glad you liked my idea and helped get everyone on board.”

      • Catherine

        I could try, its a bit scary but might work. People might think I was jumping on the bandwagon, I dunno.

    • Nicola Robb

      Sounds like you’re not being seen or heard and therefore your ideas are not being heard or taken seriously as you’re playing a different role from your norm or the one expected of you, ie the quiet introvert perhaps who doesn’t have much to say in meetings? It is an interesting phenomenon to observe; I’ve seen it happen in meetings both where I’ve been facilitating and where Ive been a participant. It requires the person chairing or facilitating the meeting to be attentive, though often people in leadership roles end up chairing meetings by default but don’t necessarily have much skill in this area. I’ve found it fascinating to witness as it appears that those who end up claiming others ideas as their own at times don’t even realise what they’ve done, (or perhaps they’re simply better at disguising their subterfuge than I think). It’s like they hear your good idea, quietly spoken, as a thought in their own head rather than something externalised. Frustrating to experience, and I have had that happen too. My solution was to talk to a colleague (ally) beforehand and ask for their support in either backing me up or at least ensuring my idea was heard before moving on. They didn’t have to know what I was going to say beforehand,(as of course I wouldn’t know that myself most of the time) it was more about ensuring the meeting didn’t hurtle on past without my voice being heard.

      On a related subject though possibly off-topic slightly, one of the best things I ever did was explore my own beliefs and thinking around the areas of leadership, power and authority through professional supervision. Once I had a better understanding of my own beliefs and thinking on these areas, I was able to contribute more confidently to meetings and my voice was heard more readily. It wasn’t about WHAT I was saying, it was about HOW I had been saying it.

      • Catherine

        That’s really interesting, thanks. Especially the bit about the person thinking its their own idea in their own head.
        I have to say, 99% of the repeaters are men, who then get acclaimed for the good idea. I’m not sure if that is significant or if its just a coincidence.

        • marionspeaks

          As a female who has often sat in a boardroom full of males, I understand the male-female dynamic you so wisely note. That definitely has impact. All the more reason to jump on what Nicola Robb suggests, and do some inner work. Know that you are worthy to be heard. And don’t roll over and surrender so easily. Stick with your topic and suggestion longer, be more assertive, get support in advance, sit to the left side of the chairperson, relay your idea by drawing a chart on the board, so everyone sees what you mean … lots of ways to have the idea attributed to you. You can do this! You deserve to.

          • Catherine

            Thanks Marion 🙂

  • Mary Pat

    Enlightening article! I would like to use the Heineken cards at my next group meeting. Where can they be purchased? Thank you Dr Hansen and Quiet Revolution for the terrific content.

  • Edna Clyde

    As someone who occasionally leads meetings and frequently attends meetings, I really got a lot out of this post. Thank you, Dr. Hansen and Quiet Revolution!